In the second half of the 19th century though, considerable development of the trade routes between the Chokwe homelands and the Angolan coast led to increased trade of ivory and rubber. Wealth acquired from this allowed the Chokwe kingdom to expand, eventually overtaking the Lunda states that had held sway over them for so long.
Their success was short-lived, however. The effects of overexpansion, disease, and colonialism resulted in the fragmentation of Chokwe power. The Chokwe grow manioc, cassava, yams, and peanuts. Tobacco and hemp are also grown for snuff, and maize is grown for beer.Domesticated livestock is also keep, and includes sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens. Protein is added through hunting. There is an exclusive association of big game hunters known as Yanga, but everyone contributes to the capture of small game animals. The farming and processing of agricultural products is done almost exclusively by women among the Chokwe. Slash and burn techniques and crop rotation are practiced to conserve the land naturally. The Chokwe do not recognize a paramount leader, but instead offer allegiance to local chiefs who inherit their positions from the maternal uncle. The chiefs (mwana nganga) consult with a committee of elders and ritual specialists before making decisions.
Villages are divided into manageable sections which are governed by family headmen. All members of Chokwe society are divided into two categories: those who are descended from the founding matrilineal lines and those who are descended from former enslaved populations. The Chokwe recognize Kalunga, the god of creation and supreme power, and a series of nature and ancestral spirits (mahamba).
These spirits may belong to the individual, family, or the community, and neglecting them is sure to result in personal or collective misfortune. Evil spirits may also be activated by sorcerers (wanga) to cause illness, and this must be counteracted to regain health. In order to accomplish this individuals normally consult with a diviner (nganga), who attempts to uncover the source of the patient's problem. The most common form of divination among the Chokwe is basket divination, which consists of the tossing of up to sixty individual objects in a basket.The configuration of the objects is then "read". 15 USD I reduce to 10 USD. 20 USD I reduced to 14 USD. 25 USD I reduce to 16 USD. 30 USD I reduce to 20 USD.
35 USD I reduce to 25 USD. 40 USD I reduce to 29 USD. 45 USD I reduced to 30 USD.
50 USD I reduce to 34 USD. 55 USD I reduce to 37 USD. 60 USD I reduce to 41 USD. 65 USD I reduce to 43 USD. 70 USD I reduce to 46 USD.
75 USD I reduce to 49 USD. 80 USD I reduce to 55 USD. I also look the combine weight and reduce further where possible. This item is in the category "Collectibles\Cultures & Ethnicities\African\1900-Now\Masks".The seller is "my-african-beauty" and is located in this country: RW. This item can be shipped worldwide.